Charcoal is a residue of solid organic matter that results from incomplete carbonisation by heat in the absence of air at temperatures above 300°C. The essential requirement for wood carbonisation is a source of heat to raise the temperature to the necessary level and exclusion of oxygen. Various methods have been used in wood carbonisation (commonly referred as charcoal burning) , Some of these methods are crude with low yield and very limited control of the quality of the charcoal produced while others are highly automated (eg. retorts). Higher charcoal conversion efficiency and quality can be achieved through proper control of the carbonisation process. There are three most common methods of charcoal production today; earth kilns, masonry and metal kilns. The earth kilns are of various types but the most common are the traditional and improved earth kilns. The masonry kilns are represented by the beehive and half orange while the metal kilns by the drum kiln and Mark V. This manual is intended to act as a guide to charcoal making in Kenya using technologies that have proved to be efficient and appropriate. They include; improved earth, drum, portable metal and the casamance kilns, The improved earth and casamance kilns have been modified by KEFRI through research while drum and metal kilns have been adopted from technologies developed elsewhere.